Uzbek literature. The school was founded in late 1920s by Abdurauf Fitrat, Abdurahmon Saadi, and Sadriddin Aini. Academician Vohid Abdullaev and Boturkhan Valikhodjaev, Professor Orif Ikramov continued the tradition of the scientific school of Uzbek literature. At present, the representatives of the scientific school are Professors M. Mukhitdinov, H. Umurov, A. Soliev, D. Salokhiy, Associate Professors Sh. Khasanov, A. Nosirov, U. Kobilov, M. Bobokhonov, S. Tokhirov, B. Mukhiddinova and others.

Linguistics was founded in the 1920s-1930s by Abdurauf Fitrat, Gozi Olim Yunusov and E.D. Polivanov. In 1930s, their work was continued by Said Riza Alizoda and in 1940s by Ulug Tursunov. Professors H. Danierov and R. Kungurov set a new level for research. Such scientists as I. Mirzaev, S. Karimov, Zh. Eltazarov, A. Pardaev continue research activities of this scientific school.

History was founded by Professor Pulat Soliev, a scientist, who studied the history of the peoples of Central Asia, and Professor I. Umnyakov, who was a specialist on the history of the XIV-XVth century Timurids. Since the time Uzbekistan gained independence, Professors I. Saidov, B. Ergashev, F. Nabiev, B. Goyibov, G. Normurodova, Associate Professors M. Nasrullaev, R. Khalikulov and a young scientist M. Khoshimova consistently enriched the academic school with their works.

Archaeology of Samarkand State Archaeological University was founded in 1944-1945 by Academician Yahya Gulyamov and Professor D. Lev. In recent years, Professor M. Dzhurakulov, Professor N. Avanesova, N. Kholmatov and D. Dzhurakulova are conducting scientific research on the genesis and dynamics of the development of country culture and spiritual culture of the peoples of Uzbekistan and Central Asia, and in particular of the Zarafshan oasis.

Philosophy at Samarkand University was founded during 1930-1940s under the leadership of Academic Ibragim Muminov. Today, the achievements of this school are associated with the names of Professors D. Yakhshilikov, Sh. Kushakov and B. Turaev. Young scientists, Doctors of Sciences O. Gaybullaev, Sh. Negmatova, A. Samadov and dozens of other Candidates of Sciences are conducting philosophical studies on the idea of independence.

Nuclear Physics and Cosmic Rays was developed in the 1940s, by Professor Musa Muminov. Сurrently, research is being carried out by Professors B. Makhmudov, R. Ibodov and U. Salikbaev. At present, students of that school are working on dissertations of candidates of physical and mathematical sciences, such as A. Safarov, Sh. Khushmurodov and a number of other talented young people.

Molecular Optics was founded in 1960s, by Professor M. Vuks from St. Petersburg State University and Academic Akbar Otahodzhaev. Modern representatives of that school (A. Zhumaboev, N. Nizomov, L. Sobirov) conduct active research in 3 areas of molecular spectroscopy. Professors A. Zhumaboev, U. Tashkenbaev and Candidates of Sciences H. Khushvaktov, A. Absanov, B. Khudoyberdyev are cooperating with domestic and foreign scientists in the field of light combustion.

Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics conducts scientific research in the field of nonlinear optical processes and acoustics under the supervision of L. Sabirov. In these areas, Doctors of Sciences N. Eshkobilov, M. Kodirov, D. Semenov, P. Redkin, A. Khalmanov, as well as Candidates of Sciences G. Khaidarov publish articles in reputed journals.

Molecular Physics conducts fundamental and practical research on the study of physical and chemical properties of organic dyes and films and their application in practice (laser substances, medical care).

Physics of Magnetic Phenomena was created in 1970s by the great efforts of O. Kuvondikov. During independence years, the works of 1 Doctor (D. Sayfullaeva) and 4 Candidates (N. Khamraev, R. Rajabov, M. Salakhidinova, Z. Shodiev) were completed. Associate Professor Shakarov and I. Subkhankulov actively participated in teaching activities.

Differential Equations and Mathematical Physics was founded during 1950s-1960s by Professors I. Kukles and M. Evgrafov. Representatives of that school were Professors A. Gaidarov, T. Eshankulov, A. Khotamov, S. Lakaev, I. Ikramov and their students, Candidates of physical and mathematical sciences E. Jabborov, Z. Muminov, T. Mamatov and several senior researchers.

Algebra and Number Theory was founded in 1940s-1950s by Professors N. Romanov and Associate Professor R. Iskandarov. Today Professor A. Soleev supervises research in ‘Local analysis of algebraic curves in robotics, generalization of Minkowski's theorem, study of recursive functions of two-sided graphs and creation of optimal algorithms for the approximate calculation of singular integrals.’ This scientific school has trained over 20 highly qualified scientific and pedagogical personnel.

Mathematical Analysis and its adaptation to Modern Mathematical Physics was founded in the 1980s by Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan S.N. Lakaev. Representatives of this school, Professors I. Ikramov, Professors J. Abdullaev, A. Kholkhodzhaev and others studied the spectral properties of two-, three- and four-level Schrödinger operators in a grid. The results of scientific research have been widely recognized throughout the world. Research in this area is carried out in collaboration with research centers in the USA, France, England, Germany, and Malaysia. This scientific school has trained 7 doctors of sciences, more than 20 Candidates of Sciences (Doctors of Philosophy).

Mechanics was founded in 1947 by Professor I. S. Kukles. The representatives of this school are Professor R. I. Khalmurodov, Professor Kh. Khudoinazarov, Professor B. Khuzhayorov, Professor A.Z. Khasanov, O. Abdurashidov, V. Burnashev and others studied the mechanics and filtration of deformable solids. Research in this area is carried out in collaboration with research centers in Russia, the USA, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. This scientific school has trained 6 Doctors of Sciences, more than 12 candidates of sciences (Doctors of Philosophy).

Information Technology at Samarkand State University, was founded in the 1990s, based on the proposal of Doctor of Technical Sciences and Academic Vosil Kabilov and I. Zhumanov. Doctor of Technical Sciences A. Akhatov, Candidates of Sciences O. Zhumanov, I. Turakulov, I. Aminov, F. Nomozov carry out scientific research on information technologies and their use in educational process.

Botany was created by Professor N.I. Merkulovich during 1927-1938. It has been further developed by Professors E. Proskoryakov, Yu. Kabulov, M. Ikramov, N. Amirkhanov since the 1960s. The main scientific direction of the School of Botany is the study of the flora of the Zarafshan River basin and its diversity. Today, representatives of this scientific school (Kh. Keldiyorov, Kh. Khaidarov, M. Normurodov, F. Kobilova, M. Nosirov, Kh. Keldiyorova, T. Radjabov, etc.) are studying the resources and biology of medicinal plants that grow in the Zarafshan Valley. Scientific work is underway on the optimal mineral nutrition of cotton and the influence of electrical engineering on it, on the problems of biology of new fodder plants. The scientific school employs more than 10 Doctors of Sciences and more than 20 Candidates of Sciences. Today, representatives of this school conduct research in close collaboration with scientists from Russia, Chinese Academy of Sciences,  University of Trier in Germany, State University of Utah in the USA and the international organization ICARDA.

Zoology was founded in the 1940s by Professors I. Turkevich and A. Sagitov. The main field of their research is ornithology, which studies the formation of tereofauna and ecology of mammals in Uzbekistan. At present, representatives of this scientific school, such as  Professor Zh. Lakhanov, Professor A. Jabborov, Associate Professor S. Fundukchiev and others are conducting research on wildlife, ecology and protection of fauna, biology and ecology of agricultural pests and parasites.

Plant Physiology was established in 1945 under the supervision of S.S. Abaeva. The main field of research is the determination of the physiological role of trace elements in plants. Today, representatives of this school, under the supervision of Professor Zh. Khodzhaev, are conducting research on the development of scientific foundations for increasing the resistance and productivity of plants to adverse factors based on the normalization of mineral nutrition. This scientific school employs 2 Doctors of Sciences and more than 10 Candidates of Sciences (Doctors of Philosophy).

Chemistry was founded in 1950s–1960s by Associate Professor N. Zokirov and Professor Yu. Kuratov. At present, Professors A. Nasimov, E. Abdurakhmanov, N. Mukhamadiev, N. Faizullaev, Associate Professors Z. Normurodov, U. Norkulov, S. Tillaev and Sh. Saidkulov are part of this school.

Biochemistry and Soil Science was founded in the 1960s on the basis of the Laboratory for the Study of Problems of Trace Elements by Professor Mark Riesch. The main fields of research of this school were increasing the fertility of pasture soils, studying the biochemical properties of the blood composition of animals. Scientific work has been carried out to determine the quality indicators of irrigated soils in the Zarafshan oasis and to draw up their maps, soil ecology, preparation of organo-mineral fertilizers from urban organic waste, and study the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on cotton and other crops.

Natural Geography and Geo-ecology was founded in 1960s and its achievements are associated with services of Professors A. Abulkosimov, L. Alibekov, Sh.Kholikulov and S. Abbosov.

Economic Theory was founded in 1970s, and was developed by Professors Y. Dunaev, K. Saidov, L. Krivoruchko, E. Alikulov, E. Khodzhaev and U. Rashidov.

Observatory at SamSU continues the history of the study of astronomy, which was begun by Mirzo Ulugbek, who had built an observatory in Samarkand. Currently, the Scientific Research Center of Astronomy (SRCA) operates at SamSU. SRCA has a Grubb-Parsons telescope with an optical lens of 48 m mirror, and equipped with a modern PZS camera capable of capturing the farthest objects in the universe. According to the Blazer International Telescope Program, observations are also being made at the Maidanak Observatory, and BL-Lac objects are still monitored at a distance of 280 Mps from our planet.

In 2007, SRCA employees discovered and replaced the double-shifting star, GSC 2007:761, with a rotation period of 6.5 hours. (This was determined by the difference in the brightness of the star d = 0.05). In addition, in 2007-2011, this center successfully completed a fundamental grant project to study changes in the brightness of blazer objects. Currently, a funded grant project is being implemented to study the variability of astrophysical objects at the Samarkand and Maidanak observatories VA-FA-F2-006 for 2017-2020.

SRCA functions as an educational observatory.